Basic Components

Test Description Method
Alcohol
Alcohol for label requirements FTIR, NIR, pycnometry
Actual alcohol (spirits) Pycnometry, NIR
Apparent alcohol (spirits) Pycnometry
Total alcohol FTIR, NIR, pycnometry
Potential alcohol
Obscuration
Extract
Extract FTIR, pycnometry
Sugar-free extract FTIR, pycnometry
Total solids  Calculation
Specific Gravity FTIR, pycnometry
Density FTIR, pycnometry
Sugars
Residual sugars FTIR, modified Rebelein
Invert sugar (non-wine products) FTIR, modified Rebelein
Total sugars FTIR, modified Rebelein
Sucrose FTIR, modified Rebelein
Glucose Enzymatic
Fructose Enzymatic
Acidity
pH FTIR, potentiometry
Titratable acidity FTIR, titration
Tartaric acid Spectrophotometry
Malic acid FTIR, enzymatic
Lactic acid FTIR, enzymatic
Citric acid Enzymatic, HPLC
Succinic acid HPLC
Acetic acid Enzymatic, GC-FID
MLF monitoring Malic acid/lactic acid ratio
Volatile acidity FTIR, distillation, enzymatic