Basic Components

TestDescriptionMethod
Alcohol
Alcohol for label requirementsFTIR, NIR, pycnometry
Actual alcohol (spirits)Pycnometry, NIR
Apparent alcohol (spirits)Pycnometry
Total alcoholFTIR, NIR, pycnometry
Potential alcohol
Obscuration
Extract
ExtractFTIR, pycnometry
Sugar-free extractFTIR, pycnometry
Total solids Calculation
Specific GravityFTIR, pycnometry
DensityFTIR, pycnometry
Sugars
Residual sugarsFTIR, modified Rebelein
Invert sugar (non-wine products)FTIR, modified Rebelein
Total sugarsFTIR, modified Rebelein
SucroseFTIR, modified Rebelein
GlucoseEnzymatic
FructoseEnzymatic
Acidity
pHFTIR, potentiometry
Titratable acidityFTIR, titration
Tartaric acidSpectrophotometry
Malic acidFTIR, enzymatic
Lactic acidFTIR, enzymatic
Citric acidEnzymatic, HPLC
Succinic acidHPLC
Acetic acidEnzymatic, GC-FID
MLF monitoringMalic acid/lactic acid ratio
Volatile acidityFTIR, distillation, enzymatic