Aromas, Faults, Contaminants, Export Requirements

Test Description Method Sensory threshold Levels in wine Comment Unit
Ash content
Ochratoxin A Export requirements HPLC-Fluorescence µg/L
Haloanisoles ‘Cork taint’ – taint compounds usually from ‘spoilt’ corks GC-MS
2,4,6 TCA; 2,3,4,6 TeCA; PCA; 2,4,6 TBA TCA: 2-5 up to 50 ng/L
Halophenols and haloanisoles Monitor and prevent taint compouds from treated wood or the cellar environment GC-MS
2,4,6 TCA; 2,4,6 TCP; 2,3,4,6 TeCA;2,3,4,6 TeCP; PCA; PCP; 2,4,6 TBA; 2,4,6,TBP; Lindane ng/L
Geosmin Earthy character from mould or bacteria growth in water or on grapes GC-MS 10-60 up to 400 ng/L
4-EP and 4-EG Monitor and control Brettanomyces taints in wine GC-MS 4EP: 0.4-0.6; 4EG: 0.2-0.3 4EP: up to 2; 4EG: up to 1 mg/L
4-vinyl phenol and 4-vinyl guaiacol Monitor and control yeast-produced taint, usually in white wines GC-MS 4VP+4VG 0.7 4VP+4VG up to 2.5 mg/L
Ethyl carbamate Secondary fermentation by-product, potentially toxic, sometimes required for export GC-MS ng/L
Ethyl acetate ‘Paint stripper’ aroma from microbiological spoilage GC-FID 10 >150 in spoiled wines mg/L
Acetaldehyde Oxidation spoilage, ‘rotten apple’ aroma, or export requirements GC-FID 100-120 10-500 mg/L
Glycols Cooling water components GC-MS
monopropylene glycol; monoethylene glycol; dipropylene glycol; diethylene glycol mg/L
Methoxypyrazines ‘Green-pepper’ character; underripeness, typical of Sauvignon family of grapes GC-MS
3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP); 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP) IBMP: 6; IPMP: 2 IBMP: 1-40; IPMP: <10 ng/L
Thiols Fermentation thiols with aromas of ‘guava’, ‘passion fruit’, ‘grapefruit’ GC-MS
3MH; 3MHA 3MH: 60; 3MHA: 4 3MH: up to 250; 3MHA: up to > 3000 ng/L
Volatile sulphur compounds ‘Reductive’ aromas GC-MS
Methional; Diethyl sulphide; Butanethiol; Dimethyl disulphide; Diethyl disulphide; Ethanethiol; Methyl sulphide µg/L
Methanol Export requirements GC-FID mg/L
Smoke taint Juice/wine tainted from veld fires/smoke GC-MS
Guaiacol; 4 methyl guaiacol µg/L
Furfural Export requirements GC-FID mg/L
Glycerol Export requirements GC-FID g/L
Malvidin 3,5-O-diglucoside Export requirements HPLC-DAD mg/L
Natamycin Export requirements DIMENSIONS HPLC-DAD µg/L
Allergens Labelling requirements
Albumen ELISA mg/L
Lysozyme ELISA mg/L
Casein ELISA mg/L
Calories cal/L
Kilojoules kJ/L
Total higher alcohols 1 propanol; isobutanol; iso amyl alcohol; 1 butanol; 1 hexanol; 2 phenyl ethanol; 2 butanol; active amyl alcohol; 1 octanol GC mg/L
Total fatty acids acetic acid; isobutyric acid; hexanoic acid; octanoic acid; decanoic acid; propionic acid; butyric acid; isovaleric acid GC mg/L
Total esters ethyl formate; isobutyl acetate; ethyl butyrate; ethyl lactate; isoamyl acetate; pentyl acetate; hexyl acetate; ethyl hexanoate; ethyl octanoate; GC mg/L
Total esters ….. cont diethyl succinate; 2 phenyl ethyl acetate; ethyl decanoate; ethyl laurate; ethyl myristate; ethyl palmitate
Pesticide residues carbaryl; chlorpyriphos; dichloran; iprodion; methiocarb; myclobutanil; procymidon; trifluarin; captan; cyprodinil; parathion; vinclozolin µg/L
Phthalates (plasticisers) dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; dibutyl phthalate; butyl benzyl phthalate; bis 2 ethyl hexyl phthalate; dioctyl phthalate; diisononyl phthalate µg/L
Shikimic acid HPLC-DAD mg/L
Benzoic acid HPLC-DAD mg/L
Oxalic acid HPLC-DAD mg/L
Benzo (A) pyrene HPLC-FLD µg/L